4R Model of Transformational Leadership
Transactional Leadership vs. Transformational Leadership
The 4R model was developed by Dr. Mark W. McCloskey to depict “the interplay of critical variables in the process of transformational leadership.” The graphic below shows some of the key characteristics of Transactional and Transformational Leadership. While both styles of leadership are useful in certain environments, Transformational Leadership is necessary when addressing dilemmas. The Transformational leader gains the trust of their followers and clients based on shared interest in the future of the organization. They create and communicate a unifying vision and mission for a better future, empower and engage followers in the attainment of that vision.
Such leaders serve as a catalyst, helping followers recognize their innate assets and apply them to enhance the success of the organization. Transformational leaders embody the values and vision they promote, and sustain healthy organizations as they inspire and motivate others to achieve the desired results.
The 4R model highlights the 4 critical variables in transformational leadership: Relationships, Roles, Responsibilities, and Results. The 4R model is not linear; each variable is vital in developing and sustaining transformational leadership. Transformational leaders set in motion a pattern of expected outcomes aligned with the organization’s vision, mission, and strategy.
Results are achieved when an effective, transformational leader fosters collaborative Relationships while participating in Roles and implementing Responsibilities. Your relationships, roles and responsibilities as a leader shape your results, and contribute to dilemmas within your organization. Results are broken into 4 categories detailed in the table below.
Responsibilities are the varied leadership behaviors required of a transformational leader, and help leaders serve as a personal and collective catalyst for change and development. The Responsibilities of a transformational leader are dependent on virtues, Relationships, and Roles for sustained effectiveness. Mark McCloskey identified several crucial responsibilities of an effective transformational leader, vision casting, strategy implementation, aligning, motivating, and analysis and judgment.
These responsibilities, described in the table below, are focused internally, within the organization, and externally, outside the organization, as well as, on the present and future goals for the organization. These responsibilities are taken on by the transformational leader when playing various roles within the organization.
A transformational leader will play multiple roles within the organization, depending on the need of their followers and clients, helping to shape the organizational health and culture. Mark McCloskey describes 4 key roles critical to Transformational Leadership: spokesperson, direction setter, coach, and change agent. While participating in these roles a transformational leader will be focused on the present or future of the organization, and additionally will focus internally or externally on the organization, assuming various responsibilities accordingly.
At the core of the 4R model is Relationships. Transformational Leaders should be engaged in collaborative relationships that are mutually beneficial to the follower and the organization, and establish trust. These relationships are the foundation of the 4R model and Transformational Leadership.
A leader’s relationships with others and a greater purpose are a reflection of the relationship a leader has with him/herself. Work Effects represents a leader’s capacity for forming collaborative, trust-based relationships with B.A.S.I.C. When developed, B.A.S.I.C. behaviors enhance a leader’s capacity to form positive, mutually beneficial relationships with self, others, and a larger purpose.
The ability to sustain Beneficial partnerships is dependent on a leader’s capacity of Aligned Emotions, Sustained Determination, Intellectual Flexibility, and Character. These BASIC qualities when combined with Roles and Responsibilities enable leaders to sustain Results.